How does this medication work? What will it do for me?
Alogliptin belongs to the group of diabetes medications called DPP-4 inhibitors. It works by preventing the breakdown of incretin. Incretin is a hormone that raises insulin levels when blood sugar is high and decreases the amount of sugar made by the body.
Alogliptin is used alone or in combination with other medications to improve blood sugar levels for adults with type 2 diabetes. This medication should be used as part of an overall diabetes management plan that includes a diet and exercise program.
This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.
What form(s) does this medication come in?
Each light pink, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablet, with "TAK" and "ALG_6.25" printed in grey ink on one side, contains 8.5 mg of alogliptin benzoate which is equivalent to 6.25 mg of alogliptin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate; film coating: hypromellose 2910, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide (red or yellow), polyethylene glycol (macrogol 8000), and printing ink (Gray F1).
Each yellow, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablet, with "TAK" and "ALG_12.5" printed in grey ink on one side, contains 17 mg of alogliptin benzoate which is equivalent to 12.5 mg of alogliptin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate; film coating: hypromellose 2910, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide (red or yellow), polyethylene glycol (macrogol 8000), and printing ink (Gray F1).
Each light red, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablet, with "TAK" and "ALG_25" printed in grey ink on one side, contains 34 mg of alogliptin benzoate which is equivalent to 25 mg of alogliptin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate; film coating: hypromellose 2910, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide (red or yellow), polyethylene glycol (macrogol 8000), and printing ink (Gray F1).
How should I use this medication?
The recommended dose of alogliptin for adults is 25 mg taken once daily. It may be taken with food or on an empty stomach, but it should be taken at approximately the same time every day. This medication should be swallowed whole and not chewed or crushed.
Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
It is important that this medication be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor.
If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular schedule. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Store this medication at room temperature, protect it from light and moisture, and keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.
Who should NOT take this medication?
Do not take this medication if you are allergic to alogliptin or any ingredients of the medication.
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
- abdominal pain
- back, bone, joint, or muscle pain
- cold or flu-like symptoms (e.g., sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, fever, fatigue)
- itchy skin
- muscle spasms
- trouble sleeping
Although most of the side effects listed below don't happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not check with your doctor or seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
- high cholesterol
- increased blood pressure
- pain or numbness in the extremities
- red, peeling, or blistering skin
- severe joint pain
- signs of anemia (low red blood cells; e.g., dizziness, pale skin, unusual tiredness or weakness, shortness of breath)
- signs of liver problems (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools)
- signs of muscle damage (e.g., unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, or brown or discoloured urine)
- signs of pancreatitis (e.g., abdominal pain on the upper left side, back pain, nausea, fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, swollen abdomen)
- stomach or abdominal pain
- swelling of the hands, feet, ankles
- symptoms of low blood sugar (e.g., cold sweat, cool pale skin, headache, fast heartbeat, weakness)
Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
- signs of a serious allergic reaction (e.g., abdominal cramps, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, or swelling of the face and throat)
- signs of a severe skin reaction (e.g., blistering, peeling, a rash covering a large area of the body, a rash that spreads quickly, or a rash combined with fever or discomfort)
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Blood sugar control: If your body experiences stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, you may lose control of blood glucose. Your doctor may decide to temporarily stop alogliptin and advise you to take insulin. Talk to your doctor if you have a fever or infection or are about to undergo surgery.
Other medications such as sulfonylureas and insulin cause hypoglycemia. If alogliptin is being added to these medications, it may be necessary to reduce these doses.
Drowsiness/reduced alertness: When it is combined with other medications that reduce blood sugar, such as metformin, alogliptin may affect the mental or physical abilities needed to drive or operate machinery. Avoid driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous tasks until you have determined how this medication affects you.
Heart disease: The safety and effectiveness of this medication for people who have congestive heart failure have not been determined. If you have congestive heart failure, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Kidney function: Kidney disease or reduced kidney function may cause this medication to build up in the body, causing side effects. If you have reduced kidney function or kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
If you have reduced kidney function, your doctor may suggest that you start with a lower dose of alogliptin.
Liver function: Alogliptin may reduce liver function and can cause liver failure. If you have liver problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. Your doctor may want to test your liver function regularly with blood tests while you are taking this medication.
If you experience symptoms of liver problems such as fatigue, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, nausea, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools, abdominal pain or swelling, and itchy skin, contact your doctor immediately.
People with severely reduced liver function should not use alogliptin.
Pancreatitis: Alogliptin can cause the pancreas to become inflamed. If you have a history of pancreatitis, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
If you experience signs of pancreatitis such as abdominal pain on the upper left side, back pain, nausea, fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, or swollen abdomen, contact your doctor immediately.
Pregnancy: This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if alogliptin passes into breast milk. If you are breast-feeding and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children.
Seniors: Seniors may need a lower dose of alogliptin. People over 65 years of age are more likely to have decreased kidney function, which results in more side effects of alogliptin.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between alogliptin and any of the following:
- acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)
- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs; captopril, enalapril, ramipril)
- antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone)
- diuretics (water pills; e.g., furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, metolazone, triamterene)
- other diabetes medications (e.g., chlorpropamide, glipizide, glyburide, insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone)
- estrogens (e.g., conjugated estrogen, estradiol, ethinyl estradiol)
- hepatitis C antivirals, (e.g., elbasvir, grazoprevir, glecaprevir and pibrentasvir, ledipasvir, sofosbuvir)
- HIV protease inhibitors (e.g., atazanavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir)
- inhaled corticosteroids (e.g., budesonide, ciclesonide, fluticasone)
- monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs; e.g., moclobemide, phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine)
- oral corticosteroids (e.g., dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone)
- progestins (e.g., cyproterone, dienogest, levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone)
- quinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin)
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline)
- somatostatin analogues (e.g., lanreotide, octreotide, pasireotide)
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
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