How does this medication work? What will it do for me?
Rifaximin belongs to the class of medications called antibacterial agents. Specifically, it belongs to the family of rifamycin antibacterials. It is used in addition to lactulose to reduce the risk of hepatic encephalopathy recurrence for adults. Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition that frequently develops when a person has chronic (long term) liver disease and the body is unable to easily get rid of the waste product, ammonia. The buildup of ammonia causes changes in brain function and may lead to coma or death if it is not controlled. Rifaximin is believed to work by eliminating bacteria in the digestive system that produce ammonia. It is very poorly absorbed into the rest of the body, making the digestive system the main area in which it works.
Rifaximin is also used to treat irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. It is thought to work by reducing the amount of bacteria and bacterial products in the gut which can help improve symptoms of bloating, stomach pain, and diarrhea.
This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.
What form(s) does this medication come in?
Each pink, oval, biconvex tablet with "rfx" debossed on one side contains 550 mg of rifaximin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, glyceryl distearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, red iron oxide, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide.
How should I use this medication?
For the prevention of hepatic encephalopathy, the recommended adult dose of rifaximin is 550 mg taken 2 times a day.
For the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, the recommended adult dosage is one tablet taken 3 times a day.
Rifaximin should be taken on an empty stomach. Tablets should be swallowed whole with water. Do not crush or chew rifaximin tablets.
Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
It is important that this medication be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular schedule. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Store this medication at room temperature, protect it from light and moisture, and keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.
Who should NOT take this medication?
Do not take rifaximin if you:
- are allergic to rifaximin or any ingredients of the medication
- are allergic to any other rifamycin antibacterial medications
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
- diarrhea (mild)
- reddish colour to sweat, urine, or tears
Although most of the side effects listed below don't happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not check with your doctor or seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
- abdominal pain
- muscle spasms
- signs of depression (e.g., poor concentration, changes in weight, changes in sleep, decreased interest in activities, thoughts of suicide)
- skin rash
Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
- signs of bowel inflammation (e.g., fever that appears after starting the medication, watery and severe diarrhea [may also be bloody])
- signs of a severe allergic reaction (e.g., abdominal cramps, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, or swelling of the face and throat)
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Antibiotic-related diarrhea: As with other antibacterial medications, rifaximin can cause a severe form of diarrhea associated with a condition known as pseudomembranous colitis. If you develop severe diarrhea while taking (or within a few weeks of taking) this medication, contact your doctor.
Liver function: Liver disease or reduced liver function may cause this medication to build up in the body, causing side effects. If you have liver problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. Your doctor may want to test your liver function regularly with blood tests while you are taking this medication.
Pregnancy: This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if rifaximin passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between rifaximin and any of the following:
- "azole" antifungal medications (e.g., fluconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole)
- BCG vaccine
- hepatitis C antivirals (e.g., glecaprevir and pibrentasvir, ledipasvir, velpatasvir)
- lumacaftor and ivacaftor
- macrolide antibiotics (e.g., azithromycin, clarithromycin)
- sodium picosulfate
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Zaxine